5 Different Types of Diabetes – A New Series Everything You Need to Know. A 5 part in-depth look into this chronic disease.
As the saying goes, "too much of something is poison," and so "too much sugar is diabetes."
Two hormones in your body that play essential roles in the control of your body sugar are insulin and glucagon. The pancreas is the source of the two hormones, also known as pancreatic endocrine hormones.
Glucagon is a hormone that helps your liver release glucose when the level goes down. High blood sugar stimulates an increase in insulin production by the beta cells of the pancreas than the normal level. Insulin helps your body cells absorb glucose for use as energy.
Some conditions, such as hormonal changes, can interfere with insulin production leading to extremely high sugar in your blood and glucose-starved body cells. As the condition persists and blood sugar continues to spike, you can be diagnosed with diabetes.What is Diabetes?
Diabetes is a health condition that affects the passing of urine from normal to excessively. The word 'diabetes' in Greek denotes 'to pass through' referring to the passing of urine excessively. The disease can either impair insulin hormone or vasopressin hormone production.
Reading further, you get to understand that diabetes types of conditions can either be sugar-related or 'sugarless.' Both types of diabetes have one thing in common, and the reason they are called diabetes. They relate to one another by the condition of passing urine frequently, a condition that was nicknamed as 'pissing evil' back in the 1600s.
The diabetes disease which most people know about is diabetes mellitus. Mellitus in the Latin language means sweet or honeyed. Diabetes mellitus would then mean 'frequent passing of sweetened urine.'
From the History of Diabetes, Indian physicians in the ancient days used ants to test diabetes mellitus in a patient. Probably they would pour some urine on a surface and wait to see whether ants would get attracted to the urine because of its sugar content. Other physicians would taste the urine to test the sugar.
Thanks to modern technology, there are better ways to test sugar content in the urine.
According to Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice, the prevalence of diabetes mellitus cases in 2019 was 463 million people or 9.3% of the world population. The research continues with estimated statistics of 2030, expecting a rise of 10.2% or 578 million cases.
The statistics reveal that diabetes is a prevalent disease requiring more attention to bring down such astonishing estimated data.
The estimated data could have included various types of diabetes that you should learn about.
5 Types of Diabetes
How many types of diabetes do you know?
Diabetes can occur differently and hence cause different health conditions and complications. For instance, one type of diabetes is prevalent to aged persons, while another one is prevalent to children or pregnant mothers.
The most common types of diabetes are diabetes, type 1, and type 2. Diabetes is a health condition with diverse types. Some of the different types are:Type 1 Diabetes
Type 1 diabetes is a chronic type that occurs due to low insulin production or none at all. The disease is prevalent in children, and the reason it is called juvenile diabetes.
One of the causes of diabetes is the immune system. Insulin hormone production can be affected when your immune system mistakenly destroys your beta cells (insulin-making cells) of the pancreas.
The hormone directs your body tissues and cells to absorb blood sugar or glucose from your bloodstream. Glucose is useful in providing energy to your cells and tissues. Without insulin, your blood sugar can build to cause diabetes.
Apart from your immune system destroying insulin-making cells, other factors can contribute to type 1 diabetes. Genetics is one such factor that affects insulin production, which can affect the right levels.Type 2 Diabetes
Type 2 diabetes is a type of diabetes prevalent with the middle-aged to the aged people, which you can refer to as adult-onset diabetes. Kids are not spared but are at risk of this type of diabetes as well. Childhood obesity is the main cause of type 2 diabetes in children.
If you have type 2 diabetes, also known as diabetes mellitus, it means you are resistant to insulin. When your body cells become resistant to insulin, the hormone fails to send signals to your body cells as it should be. The cells cease to respond to insulin signals to absorb glucose.
Your body tissue and cells, therefore, fail to get enough glucose for fuel or energy. The result is blood sugar buildup, which is a sign of type 2 diabetes.
The real cause of low insulin in type 2 diabetes is not well established. However, genetics and lifestyle can contribute to insulin imbalance or resistance.Gestational Diabetes
From the word gestational, you can guess that this type of diabetes concerns pregnancy. You are right. Gestational diabetes is a type of diabetes diagnosed during pregnancy. Gestational diabetes has the same characteristic as other types of diabetes mellitus. It affects the absorption of glucose by your body cells.
During pregnancy, a woman can form resistant or low sensitivity to insulin and hence the problem of glucose absorption to the cells.
The high sugar buildup in the blood can affect fetus development and pregnancy. Still, all is not lost. You can control your blood sugar while pregnant to remain healthy all through the period and deliver a bouncing healthy baby. Again, the condition can only last up to the pregnancy period to recover after giving birth.
All types of diabetes mellitus have almost similar symptoms, with a slight difference in type 2 diabetes, whose symptoms develop very slowly.
Diabetes insipidus is a rare condition different from other types of diabetes. You may ask yourself why the disease is referred to as diabetes, and yet it has nothing to do with insulin or blood sugar.
The disease is not related to the hormone insulin, and neither is it a blood sugar-related condition, but rather a vasopressin hormone disease. Insipidus means "not tasty," referring to "sugarless" urine.
Vasopressin hormone regulates concentrate amounts in body fluids and urine production by the kidneys. The hormone helps your body retain the proper body fluid volume and releases the proper amount through urination.
The disease can lead to extreme dehydration when you fail to balance the loss of water with your intake. It can be dangerous to children or dementia patients who can't communicate and ask for water when thirsty.
The most common cause of diabetes insipidus is an injury or an illness that can affect the hypothalamus or pituitary gland. The hypothalamus gland produces an antidiuretic hormone. The hormone is then passed to the pituitary gland for storage and also for release to the kidneys. The kidneys then maintain the water loss and body fluid retention through vasopressin or antidiuretic hormone.
There are two different types of diabetes insipidus, depending on how it happens. If the cause is the absence of antidiuretic hormone, the disease is classified as central diabetes insipidus.
If the cause is unresponsive kidneys to antidiuretic hormone, then the disease is classified as nephrogenic diabetes insipidus. Kidneys contain some cells called nephrons and hence the name of the condition.Central (Neurogenic) Diabetes Insipidus
The cause of central diabetes insipidus, also called neurogenic diabetes insipidus, is a damaged hypothalamus part of the brain. An injury, surgery, tumor, or certain illnesses can lead to a dysfunctioning hypothalamus, which can affect antidiuretic hormone production.
Some health conditions such as meningitis and stroke can damage the hypothalamus to interfere with antidiuretic hormone production and hence the control of urine release.
Both or either one of your glands, pituitary, and hypothalamus can dysfunction due to damages or other problems. When that happens, it can lead to central diabetes insipidus.
Your pituitary gland or hypothalamus can dysfunction due to the following reasons:
- Hereditary problems
- Infections such as meningitis
- Surgery that can affect hypothalamus or pituitary gland
- Pituitary tumor
- An autoimmune disease that can affect vasopressin production
Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus is another type of diabetes insipidus. It happens when your kidney tubules fail to respond to the antidiuretic hormone. Your kidney tubules are responsible for excreting urine and reabsorbing body fluids.
Some cells in the kidney tubules called nephrons that regulate what water to pass as urine and what to reabsorb into your body can fail to respond to the antidiuretic hormones (vasopressin). The unresponsive cells can become uncontrollable, causing frequent passing of urine.
Certain drugs, such as foscarnet (antiviral medication) or lithium, genetic condition, and kidney defects such as kidney stones, especially in the tubular part, can damage nephron cells. Such defects can lead to nephrogenic diabetes insipidus.
Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI) can further be divided into two other different types:Congenital Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus
The condition can be present at the birth of a child. It is a genetic condition passed from parent to child due to genetic mutation, which can cause deformed kidneys in the fetus stage.Acquired Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus
Acquired nephrogenic diabetes insipidus begins at a certain point after birth and is different from congenital nephrogenic diabetes insipidus present at birth. A diseased kidney, such as kidney stones, can lead to this type of diabetes.
MODY Diabetes is a rare type and we will be covering this and the above in detail in the next five articles. Be sure to keep following and share, so you don't miss any.
Whether you are a patient of diabetes or not, a healthy diet and a healthy lifestyle are a must. It is essential to be wary of your diet than living with a life-long condition such as diabetes.
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